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Members of the Hey and Vav Club sit at two long tables which are set with coffee cups and saucers. A social club for members of the Jewish community in Duluth. Because Jews were excluded from gentile clubs, the community formed its own, which helped forge social and business connections among members. Membership in clubs also enforced an American, rather than an exclusively ethnic identity. Several years after its founding, the Hay Vav club Americanized it’s name to the Covenant Club.

~ Photo Credit: University of Minnesota Libraries, Nathan and Theresa Berman Upper Midwest Jewish Archives

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Published On: January 1, 19450.5 min read0 Comments